Statistic homework help Cambridge
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test -- from Wolfram MathWorld
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test. A goodness-of-fit test for any statistical distribution.The test relies on the fact that the value of the sample cumulative density function is asymptotically normally distributed.
Statistic homework help Cambridge
These key informants must be people who are respected by other cultural members and who are viewed to be neutral, to enable the researcher to meet informants in all of the various factions found in the culture. Then, in the early 1920s, malinowski studied and wrote about his participation and observation of the trobriands, a study bernard (1998) calls one of the most cited early discussions of anthropological data collection methods. This may involve mapping out the setting or developing social networks to help the researcher understand the situation.
The purpose of this exercise is to help students realize how easy it is to overlook various aspects that they have not consciously tried to remember. In this way, they are better able to note their guesses about the participants ages, gender, ethnicity, etc. Those serving in a peripheral membership role observe in the setting but do not participate in activities, while active membership roles denote the researchers participation in certain or all activities, and full membership is reflected by fully participating in the culture.
Whether the information can be generalized addresses the external validity in terms of whether the interpretation is transferable from the sample to the population from which it was selected. Merriam (1998) points out that, while the researcher may have access to many different people in this situation from whom heshe may obtain information, the group members control the level of information given. Bernard (1994) adds to this understanding, indicating that participant observation requires a certain amount of deception and impression management.
They suggest using a nested sampling frame to determine differences in knowledge about a topic. Further information is provided to address keeping field notes and their use in writing up the final story. I also was told by the funding source that i should not request additional funds for research, if the results would not be publishable.
He further shares some tips for doing better participant observation (pp. Kutsche,1998), two of which are pertinent to this discussion the first property, in which the structure exhibits the characteristics of a system, and the fourth property, in which the model makes clear all observed facts. Most anthropologists, he notes, need to maintain a sense of objectivity through distance.
This involves observing the surroundings of the setting and providing a written description of the context. Review essay carolyn ellis and arthur bochner (eds. Demunck and sobo (1998) describe participant observation as the primary method used by anthropologists doing fieldwork. Spradley describes the various roles that observers may take, ranging in degree of participation from non-participation (activities are observed from outside the research setting) to passive participation (activities are observed in the setting but without participation in activities) to moderate participation (activities are observed in the setting with almost complete participation in activities) to complete participation (activities are observed in the setting with complete participation in the culture). There are three stages to the hanging out process, moving from a position of formal, ignorant intruder to welcome, knowledgeable intimate (demunck & sobo).
Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method ...
Volume 6, No. 2, Art. 43 – May 2005 . Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method. Barbara B. Kawulich. Abstract: Observation, particularly participant observation, has been used in a variety of disciplines as a tool for collecting data about people, processes, and cultures in qualitative research.
Statistic homework help Cambridge
Skewness -- from Wolfram MathWorld
Skewness is a measure of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution. If the left tail (tail at small end of the distribution) is more pronounced than the right tail (tail at the large end of the distribution), the function is said to have negative skewness.
Statistic homework help Cambridge
Simply observing without participating in the action may not lend itself to ones complete understanding of the activity. Further, i have given them copies of my work for their library.
She took a job as a rent collector to interact with the people in buildings and offices and took a job as a seamstress in a sweatshop to better understand their lives. In this way, member checks and peer debriefing occur to help ensure the trustworthiness of the data (lincoln & guba, 1994).
If you are intrigued, you will be pleased to know that what you are doing is a subdiscipline of anthropology called cultural ecology (p, Field notes in the first notebook should include jottings, maps, diagrams, interview notes, and observations.
Emic and etic standpoints for the description of behavior. Johnson and sackett (1998) discuss participant observation as a source of erroneous description in behavioral research.
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For example, several years after completing my doctoral dissertation with muscogee (creek) women about their perceptions of work, i returned for additional interviews with the women to gather specific information about more intimate aspects of their lives that had been touched on briefly in our previous conversations, but which were not reported. He further advises that fieldworkers ask themselves if what they want to learn makes the best use of the opportunity presented. Through these activities, the researcher has access to community members who can explain the meaning that such activities hold for them as individuals and can use conversations to elicit data in lieu of more formal interviews. The process of mapping, as he describes it, involves describing the relationship between the sociocultural behavior one observes and the physical environment. The disadvantages of this stance are that the researcher may lack objectivity, the group members may feel distrustful of the researcher when the research role is revealed, and the ethics of the situation are questionable, since the group members are being deceived.
Confidentiality is also a part of the reciprocal trust established with the community under study. Kutsche (1998) suggests that, when mapping out a setting, one must first learn to put aside hisher preconceptions. I was forced to choose between publishing the findings, which would have benefited my academic career, and retaining my reputation within the creek community. Angrosino and deperez (2000) advocate using a structured observation process to maximize the efficiency of the field experience, minimize researcher bias, and facilitate replication or verification by others, all of which make the findings more objective. Schensul, schensul, and lecompte further point out that all researchers should expect to experience a feeling of having been excluded at some point in the research process, particularly in the beginning.
A short time later, in 1888, beatrice potter webb studied poor neighborhoods during the day and returned to her privileged lifestyle at night. I also was told by the funding source that i should not request additional funds for research, if the results would not be publishable. Throughout the past eight or so years of teaching qualitative research courses, i have developed a variety of exercises for teaching observation skills, based on techniques i observed from other researchers and teachers of qualitative research or techniques described in others syllabi. This process he describes of becoming a part of the community, while observing their behaviors and activities, is called participant observation. Participant observation is more difficult than simply observing without participation in the activity of the setting, since it usually requires that the field notes be jotted down at a later time, after the activity has concluded. Social differences they mention that are readily observed include differences among individuals, families, or groups by educational level, type of employment, and income. Those serving in a peripheral membership role observe in the setting but do not participate in activities, while active membership roles denote the researchers participation in certain or all activities, and full membership is reflected by fully participating in the culture. One tends to do it off and on. While ethnographers traditionally tried to understand others by observing them and writing detailed accounts of others lives from an outsider viewpoint, more recently, sociologists have taken a more insider viewpoint by studying groups in their own cultures. Fieldwork involves active looking, improving memory, informal interviewing, writing detailed field notes, and perhaps most importantly, patience (dewalt & dewalt, 2002, p.Answers.com is the place to go to get the answers you need and to ask the questions you want
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She took a job as a rent collector to interact with the people in buildings and offices and took a job as a seamstress in a sweatshop to better understand their lives. Subjectivity and reflexivity in the social sciences epistemic windows and methodical consequences 30 paragraphs. It is the analysis that differentiates between creative writing and ethnology, he points out. The researcher also should become familiar with the setting and social organization of the culture. During this time, cushing learned the language, participated in the customs, was adopted by a pueblo, and was initiated into the priesthood.
While there may be instances where covert observation methods might be appropriate, these situations are few and are suspect Buy now Statistic homework help Cambridge
Included in this fieldwork is persistent observation and intermittent questioning to gain clarification of meaning of activities. The first stage is the stage at which the researcher is a stranger who is learning the social rules and language, making herselfhimself known to the community, so they will begin to teach herhim how to behave appropriately in that culture. They also add that one might look for differences in housing structure or payment structure for goods or services. Through these activities, the researcher has access to community members who can explain the meaning that such activities hold for them as individuals and can use conversations to elicit data in lieu of more formal interviews Statistic homework help Cambridge Buy now
Angrosino and deperez (2000) advocate using a structured observation process to maximize the efficiency of the field experience, minimize researcher bias, and facilitate replication or verification by others, all of which make the findings more objective. Field notes are the primary way of capturing the data that is collected from participant observations. He further advises that fieldworkers ask themselves if what they want to learn makes the best use of the opportunity presented. In this stance, the researcher is a participant in the group who is observing others and who is interested more in observing than in participating, as hisher participation is a given, since heshe is a member of the group Buy Statistic homework help Cambridge at a discount
Participant observation is a beginning step in ethnographic studies. This process he describes of becoming a part of the community, while observing their behaviors and activities, is called participant observation. Hints help you try the next step on your own. My own experience conducting research in indigenous communities, which began about ten years ago with my own ethnographic doctoral dissertation on muscogee (creek) womens perceptions of work (kawulich, 1998) and has continued in the years since (i. When the researcher meets community members for the first time, heshe should be sure to inform them of the purpose for being there, sharing sufficient information with them about the research topic that their questions about the research and the researchers presence there are put to rest Buy Online Statistic homework help Cambridge
When one succeeds in avoiding judgment, heshe is practicing cultural relativism. The degree to which the researcher involves himselfherself in participation in the culture under study makes a difference in the quality and amount of data heshe will be able to collect. My students have conducted this exercise in restaurants, listening to conversations of patrons in booths behind them, while sitting on airplanes or other modes of transportation, or by sitting outside classrooms where students were interacting, for example. He suggests that ethnography is most effective when one observes the group being studied in settings that enable himher to explore the organized routines of behavior (p. Denzin & yvonna s Buy Statistic homework help Cambridge Online at a discount
Rapport is also related to the issue of reciprocity, the giving back of something in return for their sharing their lives with the researcher. Fieldwork involves active looking, improving memory, informal interviewing, writing detailed field notes, and perhaps most importantly, patience (dewalt & dewalt, 2002, p. Validity is a term typically associated with quantitative research however, when viewed in terms of its meaning of reflecting what is purported to be measuredobserved, its use is appropriate. Regarding entering the field, there are several activities that must be addressed. Demunck and sobo describe to design sampling frames for ethnographic research, enabling the researcher to establish the viewpoints of the participants from the inside out Statistic homework help Cambridge For Sale
Stocking (1983, as cited in dewalt & dewalt, 2002) divided participant observation as an ethnographic method of data collection into three phases participation, observation, and interrogation, pointing out that malinowski and mead both emphasized the use of observation and interrogation, but not participation. Schensul, schensul, and lecompte further point out that all researchers should expect to experience a feeling of having been excluded at some point in the research process, particularly in the beginning. Researching across cultures issues of ethics and power 17 paragraphs. To alleviate this potential bias problem, bernard (1994) suggests pretesting informants or selecting participants who are culturally competent in the topic being studied For Sale Statistic homework help Cambridge
When the researcher encounters a culture that is different from hisher own and lives in that culture, constantly being bombarded by new stimuli, culture shock results. This means going into a field situation armed with a lot of questions that you want to answer and perhaps a checklist of data that you need to collect (p. For some specified length of time (about 15 to 30 minutes), they are asked to record everything they can take in through their senses about that setting and the interactions contained therein for the duration of the time period, again recording on one side of the paper their field notes from observation and on the other side their thoughts, feelings, and ideas about what is happening Sale Statistic homework help Cambridge
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